Automation testing is a method in software testing that applies tools and technology to better control the execution of tests, reduce testing efforts, and deliver faster and inexpensive testing abilities. It helps to build quality software with minimal effort as it eliminates the need for manual testing.
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It is crucial to be aware of the types of automation testing out there. This gives you a clear idea of the comprehensiveness a test automation program provides that you can integrate into your organisational structure. It also enables making smart decisions, in turn, delivering optimal results.
Keep reading to get a closer look at the wide variety of types of automation testing. Given are the most common types of automation testing.
Automation based on:
1. Type of Testing
Functional Testing: It tests the software solution’s business application in the real world, assessing the software against set functional specifications and requirements. It mainly focuses on how the application performs. The primary focus of functional testing is to test the system’s main functions such as its accessibility to users, basic usability, etc.
Put simply, this is done to test the business logic that goes into building an application. To automate this means to write scripts that validate the expectation from the app’s functionality and the business logic.
Uber, for example, is a ride-sharing, transportation app. It must be able to connect the app’s users to the Uber drivers when all conditions are met. Integration testing, unit testing, smoking testing are examples of functional testing which will be further described in detail.
Non-functional testing defines the testing of an application’s non-business elements such as usability, reliability, performance, security, databases, etc.
It differs from functional testing as it focuses on how well the application performs and not how it is supposed to function.
Taking Uber’s example again, non-functional testing ensures the efficient and fast performance of the app when it performs essential functions, like connecting end-users to the drivers.
Common types of non-functional testing are performance testing, regression testing, security testing, etc.
2. Type of Tests
Unit Tests: It is normally done in an application’s development phase and is the first type of automated testing done. Testing the code of an application and coding standards such as how the functions and methods are written are the reasons for performing unit tests.
It involves running tests on individual functions or components separately to confirm that they work as needed.
Unit tests are incredibly advantageous as these tests identify bugs early thereby reducing fixing cost as low as possible. This helps to facilitate a code’s reusability and in understanding the functionality of each unit in the application.
Unit-testing techniques are divided into three categories:
- White box testing: Tests the application’s functional behaviour of the application
- Black box testing: Involves testing UI testing along with output and input.
- Grey box testing: Involves executing test suites, performing risk analysis, and test cases.
Smoke Test: It is also known as Confidence Testing and Build Verification Testing and it is a common testing method. It comprises a small number of sets of tests executed multiple times. It is designed to assess the viability and stability executed immediately once the software is developed and functions are integrated within the software’s build.
This focuses on ensuring the application’s smooth functioning. Testing failure decides whether it needs to be shelved or sent back to the development team for modifications and if it can continue to other phases of testing.
Integration Test: As the name suggests, it involves testing the functionality of the application by integrating all the modules and units of the application in unity. It focuses on evaluating whether the system as a whole complies with the functional requirements set for it.
The different modules are brought together and studied based on how they interact with each other. This ensures seamless interaction and smooth functioning between the various functions of the software as a whole. Integration tests are done through the UI layer of the application or API testing.
Various approaches to integration testing are used such as the Top-Down Approach, the Big Bang Approach, the Sandwich Approach, and the Bottom-Up Approach.
Regression tests: Among the most common automation tests is the regression test. The main goal of regression tests, typically done at the end of a new module testing, ensure that every existing module is not affected by code changes that are made.
It involves repeating and re-running functional and non-functional tests to verify that the software is performing as it did before after some kind of program or code change was made. The software will have “regressed” if the performance is not the same. All test teams automate this pack as it is frequently run.
Security Tests: Involves applications for susceptibilities. Functional tests will comprise of authorization and such, and non-functional requirements test for cross-site scripting, SQL injection, etc.
Performance Tests and Quality control:
These are non-functional tests targeting requirements such as testing of load, scalability of the application, stress, etc.
Hopefully, this article’s brief overview of automation and its different types have given you a better understanding of the types of test automation.